Role of Upstream &  Downstream in Oil Sector

Role of Upstream & Downstream in Oil Sector

Oil and Gas business are organized as per business segment, assets and function.

In broad way, the Oil and Gas industry is divided into three categories :- Upstream, Midstream and Downstream. Let us have a look on how these three different industry are different in their own field.

  UpstreamMidstreamDownstream
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1ObjectiveTo bring underground oil or natural gas to the open surface . This activity is called production.1.Transport Crude oil and Natural gas by different means from production facility to Refining facility.
2.Transport product from Refining facility to end consumer.
1.Processing and refining of natural crude oil or natural gas.
2.After refining, create facility for marketing and distribution by different means.
2Activity1. Exploration :-Search for Potential Crude oil and Natural Gas reservoir.
2. Drilling of well for production purpose of Oil or Gas.
3. Production of Oil from well.
4.Operation and Maintenance of  well for long period.
1. Connect Upstream Industry and Downstream Industry by different means.
2. Operate some elementry level of purification of crude oil or natural gas.
3. Operate and maintain either Tanker barge or pipeline etc.
4. Charge tariff to downstream industry on volume or weight basis.
5. Create storage facility.
1. Refining of Crude oil or processing of Natural Gas.
2. Purification of product by removal of salt, sulphur etc.
3. Chemical property improvement by thermal cracking etc.
4. Make end product acceptable to end user.
5. Transport their product by rail, road, pipeline etc.
6. Establish  various distribution network for end consumer etc.
3Types1. Drilling Contractor company.
2. Integerated Oil & Gas company. (Having capacity of Upstream and Downstream)
3. Independent Oil & Gas company. (Having capacity of either Upstream or downstream)
4. Consultant service company to provide Technical support.
1. Barge Companies.
2.Pipeline companies .
3. Railroad Companies.
4. Truck Transportation Companies.
5. Transloading Companies.
6.Terminal operators.
7.Consultant service companies to provide technical support. 
1. Crude Oil and gas Refinery companies.
2. Petrochemical companies.
3. City gas distribution companies.
4. Consultant service companies to provide technical support. 
4Product1. Natural Gas.
2. Crude Oil
They could have  some byproduct.1. Gasoline or Petrol.
2. diesel.
3. LPG
4. ATF (Air turbine fuel)
5Companies1. Driller company:- Patterson UTI.
2. Integrerated Company :-Exxon mobil , Saudi Aramco.
3. Independent company:- ONGC, Gazprom, GSPC
4. Technology provider:-Schlumberger, Saipem
1. Gas authority India Ltd(GAIL).
2. Gujarat State Petronet Limited (GSPL)
3. Transcanada
1. Indian Oil corporation Ltd (IOCL).
2. Bharat Petroleum corporation Ltd (BPCL).
3. Hindustan petroleum corporation Ltd (HPCL).
4. HMEL (Hindustan Mittal energy Limited). 
5. Engineers India Limited ( Technology provider)

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